Excellent, that’s what it is, as evidenced by the following notes, more entry’s from William Smith’s Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Some typos, I think as a result of scanning. I’ve fixed just a few, mostly left the rest.

From an entry on “dictator”.

“Niebuhr infers (Hist, of Rome, vol. i. p. 564) from the Roman dictator being appointed only for six months, that he was at the head both of Rome and of the Latin league, and that a Latin dictator pos­sessed the supreme power for the other six months of the year ; but this supposition, independent of other considerations, is contradicted by the fact, that in the year in which the dictator was first ap* pointed, Rome and the Latins were preparing for war with one another. In like manner Huschke (Verfassung d. Servius Tulliiis, p. 516) starts the strange hypothesis, that the dictatorship was part of the constitution of Servius Tullius, and that a dic­tator was to be nominated every decennium for the purpose of fixing the clavus annalis and of holding the census”

On census:

“The census was originally taken by the kings; after the expulsion of the kings b’y the consuls; after 444 b.c. by special officers called censors (see censores). The censors took the auspices on the night preceding the census; on the next day their herald summoned the people to the Campus Martins, where they had an official residence in the villa publica. Each tribe appeared successively before them, and its citizens were summoned individually according to the existing register. Each had to state on oath his age, his own name, those of his father, his wife, his children, his abode, and the amount of his property. The facts were embodied in lists by the censors’ assistants. The census of the provinces was sent in by the provincial governors. There was a special commission for numbering the armies outside the Italian frontier. The censors, in putting up the new lists, took into con­sideration not ofily a man’s property but his moral conduct (see censores, p. 122a). The census was concluded with the solemn ceremony of reviewing the newly constituted army (lustrum’). (See lustrum.) The re­publican census continued to exist under the early Empire, but the last lustrum was held by Vespasian and Titus in a.d. 74. The provincial census, introduced by Augustus and maintained during the whole imperial period, had nothing to do with the Roman census, being only a means of ascertaining the taxable capacities of the provinces.

On the Proletarii.

The name in the Roman centuriate system (see centuria) of those citizens who were placed in the lowest of the five property-classes, and who were exempt from military service and tribute. They took their name from the fact that they only benefited the State by their children (proles). Another name for them is capite censi, i.e. those who were classed in the list of citizens at the census solely in regard to their status as citizens (caput). Afterwards, the richer among them were taken to serve in the wars : these were then called proletarii; and those without any property at all, capite censi. In and after the time of Marius, when the levy of troops was no longer founded on the census, the Roman armies were recruited by preference from the last class.

I found a reference elsewhere that said that “capite censi” meant something like “head count”, “head” in the sense in which animals are counted – so many head of cattle etc.

Centuria (“a hundred”). In the Roman army of the regal period the centuria was a division of 100 cavalry soldiers. In the half-military constitution of Servius Tullius the word was applied to one of the 193 divisions into which the king divided the patrician and plebeian populus according to their property, with the view of allotting to each citizen his due share of civil rights and duties. Of the 193 centuries 18 con­sisted of cavalry soldiers (100 each) belong­ing to the richest class of citizens. The next, 170, whose members were to serve as infantry, fell into five classes. The first 80 included those citizens whose property amounted to at least 100,000 asses. The second, third, and fourth, containing each 20 centuries, ; represented a minimum property of 75,000, 50,000, and 25,000 asses respectively. The fifth, with 30 centuries, represented a mini­mum of 12,500, 11,000 or 10,000 asses. These 170 centurise were again divided into 85 centuries of iumBres, or men from 18-45 years of age, who served in the field ; and 85 of sSniOrSs, citizens from 46 to 60 years
of age, who served on garrison duty in the city. Besides these there were 2 centuries of mechanics (fabrum), and 2 of musicians (cornicinum, and tubldnum).

The centuries fabrum were enrolled be­tween the first and second class: the centurice cornicinum and tubicinum between the fourth and fifth. The 193d centuria con­sisted of citizens whose income fell below the minimum standard of the rest, and who were called prSletdrii or capltl censi. These last had originally no function beyond that of voting at the assembly of the citizens in the comltla centuriata, and were not liable to military service. But in later times the richer among them were admitted to serve in the army. A fresh division of centurice was made at every census. The military equipment of each citizen, and his position in battle array, was determined 1 by the class to which his property entitled him to belong. (See legion.) On the poli­tical position of the different classes see comitia (2).

In military parlance centuria meant one of the 60 divisions of the legion, each of which was commanded by a centurio.

On Comitia

(1) The Camilla Curiata. This was the assembly of the patricians in their thirty curice, who, until the change of the con­stitution under Servius Tullius, constituted the whole pOpulus Romanus. During the regal period they were summoned by the rex or interrex, who brought before them questions to be decided Aye or No. The voting was taken first in each curia by heads, and then according to curice, in an order determined by lot. The business within the competence of this assembly was: (a) to elect a king proposed by the interrex ; (V) to confer upon the king the implrlum, by virtue of the lex curiata de imperio; (c) to decide on declarations of war, appeals, arr6gationes (see adoption), and the reception of foreign families into the body of the patricians. The Servian con­stitution transferred the right of declaring aggressive war, and the right of deciding appeals, to the Comitia Centuriata, which, from this time onward, represented the people, now composed of both patricians and plebeians. After the establishment of the Republic, the Comitia Curiata retained the right (a) of conferring, on the proposal of the senate, the imperium on the magis­trates elected by the Comitia Centuriata, and on the dictator elected by the consuls; (6) of confirming, likewise on the proposal of the senate, the alterations in the consti­tution decided upon by the Comitia Cen­turiata, and Trlbuta.

The extinction of the political difference between Patricians and Plebeians destroyed the political position of the Comitia Curiata, and the mere shadow of their rights survived. The assembly itself be­came an unreality, so much so that, in the «nd, the presence of the thirty lictOrSs curtail, and three augurs, was sufficient to enable legal resolutions to be passed (see lictobs). But the Comitia Curiata re­tained the powers affecting the reception of a non-patrician into the patrician order, and the powers affecting the proceeding of arrSgatto, especially in cases where the transition of a patrician into a plebeian family was concerned. Evidence of the exercise of these functions on their part may be traced down the imperial period.

The Comitia Cdlata were also an assembly of the patrician curice. They were so called because publicly summoned (calare). The pontifices presided, and the functions of the assembly were: (a) to in­augurate the flamlnes, the rex sacrorum, and indeed the king himself during the

regal period. (6) The detestatlo sacrOrum, previous to an act of arrogatio. This was the formal release of a person passing by adoption into another family from the sacra of his former family (see adoption), (c) The ratification of wills twice a year; but this applies only to an early period. (d) The announcement of the calendar of festivals on the first day of every month.

(2) Comitia Centuriata. The assembly of the whole people, patrician as well as plebeian, arranged according to the centuries established by Servius Tullius. The original founder of the comitia centuriata transferred to them certain political rights which had previously been exercised by the comitia curiata. It was not, however, until the foundation of the Republic, when the sovereign power in the state was trans­ferred to the body of citizens, that they attained their real political importance. They then became the assembly in which the people, collectively, expressed its will. The right of summoning the comitia cen­turiata originally belonged to the king. During the republican period it belonged, in its full extent, to the consuls and the dictator alone. The other magistrates possessed it only within certain limits. The interrex, for instance, could, in case of there being no consuls, summon the comitia centuriata to hold an election, but he could summon them for this purpose only. The censors could call them together only for the holding of the census and the lustrum; the prsetors, it may be conjectured, only in the case of capital trials. In all other instances the consent of the consuls, or their authorisation, was indispensable.

The duties of the comitia centuriata during the republican period were as follows: (a) To elect the higher magis­trates, consuls, censors, and praetors, (b) To give judgment in all the capital trials in which appeal to the people was permitted from the sentence of the magistrate sitting in judgment. This popular jurisdiction was gradually limited to political trials, common offences being dealt with by the ordinary commissions. And in the later republican age the judicial assemblies of the comitia centuriata became, in general, rarer, especiallyafter the formation of special standing commissions (qucestldnls perpS-tuas) for -the trial of a number of offences regarded as political, (c) To decide on declaring a war of aggression ; this on the proposal of the consuls, with the approval of the senate, (d) To pass laws proposed

Censores (Roman). The officials whose duty it was (after 444 b.c.) to take the place of the consuls in superintending the five-yearly census. The office was one of the higher magistracies, and could only be held once by the same person. It was at first confined to the Patricians; in 351 B.C. it was thrown open to the Plebeians, and after 339 one of the censors was obliged by law to be a plebeian. On occasion of a census, the censors were elected soon after the ac­cession to office of the new consuls, who presided over the assembly. They were usually chosen from the number of consu-Idrls, or persons who had been consuls. Accordingly the censorship was regarded, if not as the highest office of state, at least as the highest step in the ladder of promotion. The newly elected censors entered imme­diately, after due summons, upon their office. Its duration was fixed in 433 b.c. to eighteen months, but it could be extended for certain purposes. For the object of carrying out their proper duties, the census and the solemn purifications (lustrum1) that con­cluded it, they had the power of summon­ing the people to the Campus Martius, where, since 434 B.C., they had an official residence in the Villa Publlca. The tri­bunes had no right of veto as against their proceedings in taking the census.

Census. After the establishment of the constitution of Servius Tullius the number of Roman citizens was ascertained every five years (though not always with per­fect regularity) to determine their legal liability to the payment of taxes and to military service. This process was called census. The census was originally taken by the kings; after the expulsion of the kings by the consuls; after 444 b.c. by special officers called censors (see censores). The censors took the auspices on the night preceding the census; on the next day their herald summoned the people to the Campus Martins, where they had an official residence in the villa publica. Each tribe appeared successively before them, and its citizens were summoned individually according to the existing register. Each had to state on oath his age, his own name, those of his father, his wife, his children, his abode, and the amount of his property. The facts were embodied in lists by the censors’ assistants. The census of the provinces was sent in by the provincial governors. There was a special commission for numbering the armies outside the Italian frontier. The censors, in putting up the new lists, took into con­sideration not only a man’s property but his moral conduct (see censores, p. 122a). The census was concluded with the solemn ceremony of reviewing the newly constituted army (lustrum’). (See lustrum.) The re­publican census continued to exist under the early Empire, but the last lustrum was held by Vespasian and Titus in a.d. 74. The provincial census, introduced by Augustus and maintained during the whole imperial period, had nothing to do with the Roman census, being only a means of ascertaining the taxable capacities of the provinces.

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